GINKGO Ginkgo biloba
Medicinal Parts: The medicinal parts are the fresh or dried leaves, and the seeds separated from their fleshy outer layer.
ACTIONS AND PHARMACOLOGY
Flavonoids (0.5-1.8%): including monosides, biosides and triosides of quercetin, isorhamnetins, 3-0- methylmyristicin, and kaemferol, to some extent estered with p-coumaric acid
Biflavonoids (0.4-1.9%): for example, amentoflavone, biloetin, 5-methoxybilobetin, ginkgetin, isoginkgetin
Trilactoni diterpenes (0.06-0.23%): ginkgolide A, B, C
Trilactonic sesquiterpene bilabolids (0.04-0.2%)
Ginkgolide B is a potent inhibitor of platelet-activating factor (PAF), which is important for the induction of arachidonate-independent platelet aggregation. Ginkgolide B blocks the binding to PAF to its receptor resulting in an antagonistic effect. This effect will inhibit PAF-induced bronchoconstriction and airway hyperactivity, along with T-lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production. PAF induces inflammation and changes in vascular permeability.
Ginkgo biloba exerts ischemic protective and antioxidant effects through the flavonoids. This occurs through a free scavenger action and prevention of lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation is involved in producing tissue and vascular damage, and neuronal loss, which may lead to dementia. The herb also reduces neutrophil infiltration and increases flood flow to prevent the progression of dementia ischemia. The antioxidant and membrane-stabilizing activity increases cerebral hypoxia tolerance.
Other effects consist of spasmolytic properties through direct action on alpha-adrenoceptors and smooth muscle relaxing properties via the signal transduction pathway, intracellular cAMP, antagonism of the adrenergic nervous system and hyperpolarization.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Approved by Commission E:
- * Symptomatic relief of organic brain dysfunction
- * Intermittent claudication
- * Vertigo (vascular origin)
- * Tinnitus (vascular origin)
Gingko has been demonstrated to improve concentration and memory deficits as a result of peripheral arterial occlusive disease.
Gingko is used to reverse sexual dysfunction caused by SSRI depressants.
In folk medicine, ginkgo has been used as a psychotropic and neurotropic agent. It has been used to improve sexual performance, prevent premature aging, regulate gastric acidity, improve liver and gallbladder function, regulate bacterial flora, regulate blood pressure, and treat heart disease.